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#1 SaRaRa

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Posted 29 June 2009 - 07:50 PM

Those are some videos concerning milk processing & production that I found online. There are also some open teleconference lectures given by some professors. Some videos might show some specific brands but my intention is not to advertise!!! If any of these videos is considered as a advertisement please do delete them!

LECTURES:

Milk Processing

Milk Processing and Packaging Part-1

Milk Producation And Quality of milk


PROCESS AND OTHER:

How It's Made: Milk

Food Safety: The MDA and Milk

Milking cows in 16x16 De-Laval herringbone parlor

VMS Robot Milking Cows

A Visit From the Milk Truck

Complete Milk processing Plant and Equipment

Separation and Clarification of Milk

Milk Separator Machine

Separation Technology

Milk Bottling Video

Milk Production at the MTSU farm laboratory

Cheers!


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#2 SaRaRa

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Posted 30 June 2009 - 10:07 AM

You can find actual, scientifically supported information about the composition, nutritional content, health issues, and microbial issues associated with milk by Cornell University here.

Here you can find scientific info regarding the Rural Dairy Technology (Experiences in Ethiopia).

Here you can find info about Village Milk Processing by a Dairy Technology Specialist J.C. Lambert working for F.A.O.

Here you can find material and designations about Miking, Milk Production Hygiene and Udder Health by F.A.O.

Here you can find an overview of dairy and fluid milk products made by University of Guelph.


Cheers!


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#3 Hongyun

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Posted 30 June 2009 - 12:43 PM

Nice links you got there. Sure would help alot of students working on milk related projects.

But I can't seemed to open most of the videos. The error given from youtube was: "The URL contained a malformed video ID."

Small problem though, I was able to find the video from youtube by searching the title.

Since we're on the topic of milk, I have one question. How do you prevent maillard reaction in milk products containing fruit juice?


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#4 SaRaRa

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Posted 30 June 2009 - 02:17 PM

Oh my! You are right! :blink:

Hmm!

"The first step in milk products, lactosylation, results in lactose adducts of proteins and reduces the availability of lysine, an essential aminoacid. The reaction is initiated during heating but continues during storage. Lactosylation produces ε-N-Deoxylactulosyl-D-Lysine or lactulosyl lysine, the most stable product of Maillard reactions. Lactosylation occurs readily in the dry state (Deeth and Hartanto, 2009)."

But I suppose you dont use any milk powder in the specific product mentioned. Right?

"The extend of Maillard reactions in milk products is often determined by measurement of furosine, a product of the acid hydrolysis of lactulosyl lysine formed during the analysis (Deeth and Hartanto, 2009)." You can see the whole text here.

I was reading today about polysacharrides and somewhere it was mentioned that carrageenans can form complexes with milk proteins due to electrostatic forces of the sulphur anions and the positive charges of the casein micelles. Considering that Maillard reaction involves the condensation of an amino group and a reducing group maybe the addition of a specific quantity of carrageenan into the milk could work by preventing lactose of milk and naturals sugars (I suppose fructose and sucrose) of orange juice to react with the milk proteins. But this could affect the rheology of the product since dilute solutions of carrageenan give to the milk a more thixotropic behaviour and probably the formation of a gel. I dont think that you want that! :P

Another solution could be to keep the processing and preservation temperatures as low as possible (if the process contains a heating/pausterization treatment then maybe holding time could be prolonged).

Or maybe modifying a bit the pH because in this way the "offering" of amino groups of the aminoacids is somehow mildly restricted.

Or maybe the use of sulphur dioxide(that are also used in the preservation of juices) can work?

Here are 6 ways to inhibit nonenzymatic browning (I am sure you are familiar with all of the above). And here are ways to control Maillard reactions in foods.

Aminoguanidine has been shown to prevent Maillard reactions by preventing protein crosslinking. (This book though refers to Ascorbic acid and mainly to biomedical cell biology).

I will look more about it later!

Cheers! :biggrin:


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#5 Tony-C

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Posted 30 June 2009 - 10:03 PM

Since we're on the topic of milk, I have one question. How do you prevent maillard reaction in milk products containing fruit juice?


Great question but how can you stop the forces of nature? What about using fresh milk?

Regards,

Tony
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#6 SaRaRa

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Posted 30 June 2009 - 10:29 PM

Fresh milk? You mean raw milk or pasteurised milk? Why?


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#7 Hongyun

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Posted 02 July 2009 - 01:33 AM

Hi Philip,

Thanks for the info. I did think of Sulphur dioxide and reducing the pH. But we do not have samples nor do we want sour milk... which may also induce coagulation of milk proteins due to the isoelectric point difference.

Carrageenans are also a no go as they form gel with calcium ions. We don't want milk pudding...

Finally, the only way like you suggested is to take care of the temperature/time process... Since there are a number of samples to prepare, retorting small batch samples are fast, but causes undesireable browning.

My colleagues finally decided to use UHT instead to counter the problem. High temperature short time should solve the problem. The the batch size to prepare would be alot larger.

@Tony,

Why fresh milk? If we were to add juice to fresh milk directly and consume, there would be no browning as no heat treatment. But if the product were to be shelf stable or to prevent bloating of the cans when it reached the customer, heat treatment is neccessary...


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"World Community Grid made it possible for us to analyze in one day the number of specimens that would take approximately 130 years to complete using a traditional computer."

- Dr. David J. Foran, professor and lead researcher at The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School.




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#8 Tony-C

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Posted 02 July 2009 - 06:40 AM

My colleagues finally decided to use UHT instead to counter the problem. High temperature short time should solve the problem. The the batch size to prepare would be alot larger.

@Tony,

Why fresh milk? If we were to add juice to fresh milk directly and consume, there would be no browning as no heat treatment. But if the product were to be shelf stable or to prevent bloating of the cans when it reached the customer, heat treatment is neccessary...


Okay to clarify by fresh milk I mean milk that is of the shortest possible time from milking. Any heat treatment will help and I certainly don't recommend using raw milk. UHT is even better if you have an enzyme deactivation stage. pH control is required for stabilty.
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#9 FSSM

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Posted 28 July 2009 - 07:01 PM

Dear Hongyun:

Please review the possibility of carrageenan, it is widthly used for chocolate flavored (cocoa suspension) milk. Not all carrageenans will behave the same, so you won´t get a chocolate pudding. Also I can´t predict if it will stop Millard reactions but SaRaRa theory deserves a try.

Regards,

FSSM


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#10 Tony-C

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Posted 28 July 2009 - 07:50 PM

Dear Hongyun:
Please review the possibility of carrageenan


:thumbdown: Only use Carrageenan if you can handle it gently - short chain Carrageenans are a suspected carcinogenic.

Regards,

Tony
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#11 FSSM

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Posted 28 July 2009 - 09:46 PM

:thumbdown: Only use Carrageenan if you can handle it gently - short chain Carrageenans are a suspected carcinogenic.

Regards,

Tony


Ok, so you just need to consider a carcinogenic ingredient in the risk analysis, but please remember to include sugar, might transform your customers into obese, and maybe diabetic.

Or what about triacylglycerols structure and milk fat ultrastructure, with potential effects on cardiovascular risk factors linked to postprandial hypertriglyceridemia. Chronic diseases are a silent enemy! :unsure:

http://www3.intersci...l...=1&SRETRY=0

Regards,

FSSM

Edited by FSSM, 28 July 2009 - 09:47 PM.

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#12 Hongyun

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Posted 29 July 2009 - 12:48 AM

Hi Tony,

Thanks for the info. This is the first time I have heard of the link between carrageenan and carcinogen.

The amount to use is usually very small, and if we used it in a less acidic media like coffee, dairy products, it is less likely to degrade?

>Wikipedia<

@ FSSM,

Thanks for your feedback. Will let my colleagues know about it. Maybe they will request more application data from suppliers for future trials.


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#13 AS NUR

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Posted 29 July 2009 - 01:04 AM

Since we're on the topic of milk, I have one question. How do you prevent maillard reaction in milk products containing fruit juice?


as my experience to combine milk juice.. you canuse pectin or CMC to cover your milk protein.. so acidic enviromental can't effect to protein..
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#14 FSSM

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Posted 29 July 2009 - 03:07 AM

Hi Tony,

Thanks for the info. This is the first time I have heard of the link between carrageenan and carcinogen.

The amount to use is usually very small, and if we used it in a less acidic media like coffee, dairy products, it is less likely to degrade?

>Wikipedia<

@ FSSM,

Thanks for your feedback. Will let my colleagues know about it. Maybe they will request more application data from suppliers for future trials.


Well, I´m posting here the Pdf´s of the documents supporting and against carcinogenic potencial. I haven´t read the documents, but it seems less likely to degrade in coffe and dairy products as per the initial information. Review it carefully, would the experiments represent your process? What would be the expected exposure of consumers to the potencial carcinogenic ingredient in your product and in the overall population exposed to it through other products on the market?... is this within the scope of your FSMS? I think that is for an offical food safety authority roll.

Attached File  Opinion_of_the_Scientific_Committee_on_Food_Carrageenan.pdf   156.32KB   41 downloads
Attached File  Review_of_harmful_gastrointestinal_effects_of_carrageenan_in_animal_experiments.pdf   570.31KB   30 downloads

Regards,

FSSM
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#15 Hongyun

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Posted 29 July 2009 - 02:04 PM

as my experience to combine milk juice.. you canuse pectin or CMC to cover your milk protein.. so acidic enviromental can't effect to protein..


Hi AS NUR,

Thanks for the info. Will forward your input to my colleagues.

So, I assumed you have tried pectin or CMC before with similar dairy + juice products without coagulation?

Hi FSSM,

Seems like there are concerns with the use of carrageenan in foodstuffs.

The major pieces of evidence that support an argument to reconsider the advisability of use of carrageenan as a GRAS food additive are:

• Degraded carrageenan is a known carcinogen in animal models

• Undegraded carrageenan is a known co-carcinogen in animal models of carcinogenesis

• In animal models, both degraded and undegraded carrageenan have been associated with development of intestinal ulcerations that resemble ulcerative colitis

• Hydrolysis such as may occur by exposure to gastric acid in the human stomach can lead to the depolymerization of undegraded carrageenan and the availability of degraded carrageenan

• Food-grade carrageenan may be contaminated with low molecular weight, degraded

carrageenan that may arise during food processing

• The use of a viscosity measurement to characterize a carrageenan sample is insufficient because the presence of a small number of large molecules (and undegraded carrageenan may have molecular weight in the millions) may obscure a significant low molecular weight fraction.

The potential role of carrageenan in the development of gastrointestinal malignancy and inflammatory bowel disease requires careful reconsideration of the advisability of its continued use as a food additive.


Maybe it's just better to substitute other hydrocolloids instead?

Also, we have no idea if the carrageenan provided by a cheaper source contains higher amount of degraded carrageenan or not.

Edited by Hongyun, 29 July 2009 - 02:20 PM.

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&quot;World Community Grid made it possible for us to analyze in one day the number of specimens that would take approximately 130 years to complete using a traditional computer.&quot;

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#16 FSSM

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Posted 29 July 2009 - 02:29 PM

Well, if there are alternatives, why use an ingredient potentially unsafe?

Good to know!

FSSM


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#17 AS NUR

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Posted 30 July 2009 - 01:11 AM

yes.. hongyun.. i already applicated on commercial product ..


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#18 Abdul Qudoos

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Posted 20 August 2009 - 05:54 AM

Carrageenan / Fruit Pectin may be added to milk+juice where the content of juice is more, combination of cocoa powder and fresh milk seems to be the best (depending upon % if carrageenan used) in binding cocoa & milk (uniform/homogeneity).

Carboxy methyl cellulose may help.

Heating / pasteurization and packing (under vacuum) in tetra pack also improves.

For all the above taking consideration of pH activity.

What about salt in juice?


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#19 Tony-C

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Posted 20 August 2009 - 06:41 AM

Carrageenan / Fruit Pectin may be added to milk+juice where the content of juice is more, combination of cocoa powder and fresh milk seems to be the best (depending upon % if carrageenan used) in binding cocoa & milk (uniform/homogeneity).


As per my earlier post:

:thumbdown: Only use Carrageenan if you can handle it gently - short chain Carrageenans are a suspected carcinogenic.

Regards,

Tony
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