In lieu of a common database that would house all CAPAs, Some of the best practices/approaches I have seen around this are
Agree on the inputs (Food Safety, Quality, Internal Audit, External Audit, Customer Complaints, etc. agree on the severity of those inputs for which a detailed CAPA would be communicated amongst the different groups). A summary of all the issues (inputs for CAPA) can be shared in any form like simple set of numbers or as graphs for comparison & improvement sake, on a regular basis. But as details, only the agreed significant ones will be communicated as separate document to serve learning, awareness needs to prevent similar issues. A tip on deciding the input that is worth communicating globally would be, anything that would impact Food Safety, Regulatory, Customer expectations & Compliances. When such a system or similar system is implemented, eventually the calibration process happens for it to more meaningful and helpful & it runs on its own from there on.
I have seen companies sharing such documents in word format with pictures or as Pdfs to start with via emails. Later they would move to a shared folder or database where such things will be housed for future references companywide or across multiple sites.
I hope this helps.