FEEDBACK ON QUESTIONS AND COMMENTS MADE DURING THE FOOD SAFETY FRIDAYS WEBINAR ENTITLED ‘DANGERS OF FOOD BORNE PATHOGENS’
Please find below responses made to the questions and comments posed during the above webinar session:
Ana: Regarding the botulinic toxin, isn´t it thermo resistant?
Botulinum toxin is not heat resistant. It can be destroyed by boiling at temperatures higher than 85oC for at least 5 minutes. Because the toxin is destroyed by high temperatures, persons who eat home-canned foods (and even store bought canned foods) should consider boiling the food for 10 minutes before eating it to ensure safety. However, the spores of Clostridium botulinum are the ones known to be heat-resistant. The spores do not affect human health, but when exposed to a moist, low-acid, warm, and oxygen-free environment they germinate and produce the toxin that affects human health.
Corrado Gallo: I making an analysis plan for fresh and canned truffles, which pathogens would you search?
Since truffles are harvested from the soil, I would search for pathogens that can be found in the soil, for example, Listeria, Camphylobacter, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium.
Nasr: I wonder if there is a difference between salmonella that cause food poisoning and that that cause animal salmonellosis?
Various types of Salmonella species have been identified as causing salmonellosis in both animals and humans. Basically, Salmonella is Salmonella whether located in the bodies of animals or humans. Salmonella carried by animals can be transmitted to humans.
Tracie Barracks-White: What is the best test kit for food contact surfaces for these pathogens?
There are numerous commercial test kits available on the market with varying degrees of detection capability. It is up to you to select which would be best suited to your establishment and to validate its capability. You may find the information on these sites useful:
Lilly Laws: What is the most prevalent pathogen in spices?
Bacillus cereus and Salmonella have been detected in a wide range of spices. Clostridium perfrigens and E. coli have also been detected at very low levels.
Erin: Is the Trichinella hazard reduced or eliminated if the raw pork is frozen before cooking?
The hazard is reduced by freezing raw pork before cooking. It is recommended that pork less than 6 inches thick be frozen for 20 days at -15oC to kill the worms. However, freezing some meats (such as game meats) may not effectively kill all the worms or larvae as some Trichinella species that infect wild game are freeze-resistant. Thoroughly cooking meat guarantees that the Trichinella hazard is eliminated.
Ganesh Sharma: How do validate heat treatment CCP limit?
If you are validating destruction of pathogens from the heat treatment process, I would suggest testing for the presence of specific pathogens in the output product from the heat treatment process. If you want to validate the specific temperature required for the CCP, then test for the pathogens after exposure of the product to varying temperatures. The temperature that results in the elimination of the pathogens then becomes the CCP temperature.
Dr. Mert KAYTANLI: How do we get rid of Clostridium botulinum from milk products?
Clostridium botulinum contamination in milk is not common. The chemical composition of raw milk does not present a favourable environment for clostridial spore germination. Spore germination is initiated when conditions are right, especially with the absence of oxygen. Hence, chances of spore germination in milk are low. The spores themselves are generally harmless, and danger arises when the environment becomes conducive for the spores to germinate into viable bacteria that produce the toxin. Should the botulinum toxin be present in milk it has been found that pasteurization temperatures can destroy it.
Dr. Mert KAYTANLI: What is the best disinfection method in drinking water?
The best way to kill pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites, is to boil the water. You can also chlorinate the water but this method kills some, and not all the different types of germs that may be present in water.
Dr. Mert KAYTANLI: What are the water borne pathogens?
There are numerous water borne pathogens. The bacteria consist of species of Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, Helicobacter, Legionella, Mycobacterium, Salmonella, Vibrio cholerae and Yersinia. Protozoa consist of species of Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Giardia, Naegleria fowleri, and Toxoplasma. The viruses include Adenovirus, Astrovirus, Calicivirus, Enterovirus, Hepatitis A, Hepatitis E, and Rotavirus.