21 CFR part 101 covers all the requirements of food labeling, with a section for each component except food allergens, which are covered in the Food Allergen Labeling Protection Act (and I hadn't realized before your question that they never made it into the CFR, wow!).
The 2013 food labeling guide is still very relevant and a good resource! The only parts to watch out for are the nutrition labeling/nutrition facts panel areas which have been updated. The required formatting and which vitamins etc. are included can be found in this guidance and others. But once again, the CFR has been updated with this information and you can look for alternatives/exemptions for your product there in 101.9
Your labeling needs to have the following components, each of which you can look up separately in the CFR to feel out the requirements. The CFR is much easier to digest when you're exploring just one requirement at a time vs. reading the novel.
Principal Display Panel:
Statement of identity (which may accompany a "fanciful name")
Net quantity of contents
Information panel (with no intervening information such as UPC):
Nutrition facts panel
Ingredient statement with allergen declaration
Name and address of manufacturer
For questions about how you can name your product USDA actually has some good (but older) guides for naming foods. They were/are weird about product names and so created decent guidance.