The practical reality IMEX in the ( apparently non-USA, non-UK, non-?? sueing world) is that items like COAs, COCs are a pipedream for many items / many suppliers. And such a lack can even be validated if one delves into the pronouncements of some Certification aficionados (a thread exists here related to this topic).
Just as an example, try getting a COA from a ship ? or a COA from an intermediate supplier buying raw, fresh products from a “market” ?
Microbiological analyses (and especially for many pathogens) are simply time-impossible when accepting/rejecting truck loads of fresh, incoming raw material destined for immediate processing. The best one can do is random sampling/checking of time-accessible parameters and implement retrospective activities for the others.
This is why IMEX an absolutely minimal requirement for a manufacturer to receive any input material is that a mutually agreed specification exists between buyer and the immediately preceding seller.
And tomorrow the Production Manager will send a worker to the nearest Department store to purchase a random jar of spices because someone forgot to check the stock balance. Another “exception” to document in the X-file which illustrates an unhighlighted objective for evaluating “Continuous Improvement”.
There are perhaps analogies to the current parallel thread comparing mock recalls to the real thing.
My 2 pennies worth.
Rgds / Charles.C