I have always sited the following references and it has never been questioned by GFSI Auditors, FDA or AIBI:
Technical Reference: Relevant Biological Pathogens for Juice products: · E. coli O157:H7 · Salmonella Species · Listeria Species · Cryptosporidium parvum Validation Statement: Critical limits for Pasteurization within Juice HACCP plans To fulfill the requirements of 21 CFR Part 120, the minimum "pathogen cook" prescribed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (CFSAN) for heat-treated, non-shelf stable juices is a minimum 6-second pasteurization process at 160ºF (71ºC). This corresponds to a 5-log reduction of the parasite Cryptosporidium parvum (all forms) and a >5-log reduction of E. coli 0157:H7, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in juices. The research on which this is based (Mazzotta, 2001) was carried out using fruit juices adjusted to pH 3.9. In response to inquiries from the juice beverage industry, an FDA official has stated that the aforementioned process (6 sec at 160ºF) is adequate to assure the microbiological safety of juices with pH values as high as 4.50 (Kashtock, 2004).
An example of a higher temperature / shorter time process that also meets the above criteria is a pasteurization hold time of 1 second (fastest moving particle) at a minimum temperature of 180ºF (82.2ºC) References:
Kashtock, M.E. (June 21, 2004). Personal communication. Note: Dr. Kashtock is Senior Advisor, Division of Plant Product Safety, Office of Plant and Dairy Foods, with the FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN).
Mazzotta, A.S. (2001). Thermal Inactivation of Stationary-Phase and Acid-Adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes in Fruit Juices. Journal of Food Protection, 64, 315-320.
Guidance for Industry: Juice HACCP Hazards and Controls Guidance First Edition; Final Guidance
5.2 Validated Pasteurization Treatments for Juice
Study #1 Summary: A study done by the NFPA(7) has resulted in a recommended general thermal process of 3 seconds at 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F), for achieving a 5-log reduction for E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes in fruit juices. The efficacy of this process was measured using single strength apple, orange, and white grape juices adjusted to a pH of 3.9. The authors noted that a pH in the range of 3.6 to 4.0 has been reported as a non-significant variable in the heat resistance of E. coli O157:H7
Study #2 Summary: A study done at the University of Wisconsin(8) has shown that treatments of 68.1 degrees C (155 degrees F) for 14 seconds (recommended treatment conditions in Wisconsin) and 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F) for 6 seconds (recommended treatment conditions in New York) are capable of achieving a 5-log reduction of acid adapted E. coli O157:H7 in apple cider (pH values of 3.3 and 4.1). The Wisconsin study also confirmed the adequacy of the treatment conditions of the NFPA study (71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F) for 3 seconds) for achieving a 5-log reduction for E. coli O157:H7 in apple cider.
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