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Staph. aureus contamination in Canned Tuna


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#1 Avila

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Posted 04 December 2013 - 06:35 AM

In order to minimize Staph.aureus contamination in Canned Tuna, what are the effective practices should be done in processing area. Should we put Staph. aureus contamination as a CCP instead of controlled by GMP & SSOP. Please advise



#2 Charles.C

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Posted 04 December 2013 - 12:17 PM

In order to minimize Staph.aureus contamination in Canned Tuna, what are the effective practices should be done in processing area. Should we put Staph. aureus contamination as a CCP instead of controlled by GMP & SSOP. Please advise

Dear avila muncar,

 

What is the level of S.aureus in the tuna before canning ?

 

Regarding choice of CCP, this depends on yr hazard analysis.

 

Likelihood of occurrence of hazardous levels of S.aureus in seafood raw material is usually rare  assuming PRPs like raw material compliance with specifications and satisfactory hygiene/GMP are maintained. 

 

An appropriate canning process  will "eliminate"  vegetative microbial pathogens such as S.aureus.

 

Rgds / Charles.C


Edited by Charles.C, 05 December 2013 - 02:56 AM.
text revised

Kind Regards,

 

Charles.C


#3 Avila

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Posted 05 December 2013 - 02:44 AM

Dear avila muncar,

 

What is the level of S.aureus in the tuna before canning ?

 

An appropriate canning process  will "eliminate"  vegetative microbial pathogens such as S.aureus.

 

Rgds / Charles.C

Dear Charles,

We are concerning about Staph.aureus toxin that might be present during cooked tuna preparation prior to retorting.

Vegetative cells should be destroyed by pre-cooking step but recontamination might be happened due to hands contact with products while on processing line before can seaming and retorting.

Regards



#4 Charles.C

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Posted 05 December 2013 - 03:08 AM

Dear Charles,

We are concerning about Staph.aureus toxin that might be present during cooked tuna preparation prior to retorting.

Vegetative cells should be destroyed by pre-cooking step but recontamination might be happened due to hands contact with products while on processing line before can seaming and retorting.

Regards

Dear avila muncar,

 

It's true that opportunity for growth of S.aureus is promoted after reduction of overall bacterial flora.

But S.aureus toxin is only produced at high levels of the S.aureus bacterium. Such levels should not occur with satisfactory hygienic handling  / temperature- time / raw material quality.

 

You should obtain some process micro. data if you hv some unusual reason for concern.

 

Rgds / Charles.C


Kind Regards,

 

Charles.C


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#5 jibrad

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Posted 05 December 2013 - 09:27 PM

Control of S aureus would be through PRPs. These would include verified equipment sanitation, good hygiene practises, elimination of cross contamination, control of utensils, hand wash and sanitation controls, wearing of appropriate PPE including sanitized gloves, sleeves, aprons and face masks etc.  

 

Agree with the suggestion to assess microbial levels including for Staph in tuna pre retorting.

 

regards

 

DB



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#6 jdebeer

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Posted 31 July 2018 - 03:33 AM

There have been some papers published on this topic since 2013.

 

Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 79, No. 4, 2016, Pages 620–627
doi:10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-15-439
Copyright Q, International Association for Food Protection
Effect of Storage Temperature on the Outgrowth and Toxin
Production of Staphylococcus aureus in Freeze-Thawed
Precooked Tuna Meat
AI KATAOKA,1* ELENA ENACHE,1 CARLA NAPIER,1 MELINDA HAYMAN,1 AND LISA WEDDIG2
1Grocery Manufacturers Association, 1350 I Street N.W., Suite 300, Washington, D.C. 20005; and 2National Fisheries Institute, 7918 Jones Branch Drive,
Suite 700, McLean, Virginia 22102, USA
MS 15-439: Received 1 October 2015/Accepted 22 December 2015
 
-----------
 
Effects of Frozen Storage on Survival of
Staphylococcus aureus and Enterotoxin
Production in Precooked Tuna Meat
Xulei Wu and Yi-Cheng Su
2014 Institute of Food Technologists R
doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.12530 Vol. 00, Nr. 0, 2014 Journal of Food Science M1
Further reproduction without permission is prohibited
 
--------------------------
Growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterotoxin Production in Pre-cooked Tuna
Meat    authir Xulei We - Thesis Oregon State U
 
 
 


#7 Charles.C

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Posted 31 July 2018 - 09:11 AM

Hi jdebeer,

 

Thks for above update. Here is abstract of 1st reference -
 

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the time for a 3-log CFU/g outgrowth of Staphylococcus aureus and its toxin production in previously frozen precooked tuna meat (albacore [Thunnus alalunga] prepared as loin, chunk, and flake or skipjack [Katsuwonus pelamis] prepared as chunk and flake) held either at 21 or 27°C.

A five-strain cocktail of enterotoxin-producing S. aureus was surface inoculated with ~10³ CFU/g onto tuna samples. The experimental time-temperature conditions were designed to mimic common industry holding conditions. After a 3-h incubation at 37°C, inoculated samples were individually vacuum sealed and stored at 20°C for 4 weeks [?]. Following frozen storage, samples were thawed to the target temperature (21 or 27°C) and then incubated aerobically. Growth of S. aureus in tuna was then monitored using Baird Parker agar; simultaneously, aerobic plate counts, enterotoxin production, and sensory profile (color and odor) were determined.

 

The results showed that the time for a 3-log CFU/g increase was >20 h at 21°C and 8 to 12 h at 27°C for albacore, with toxin production observed at 14 to 16 h at 21°C and at 8 h at 27°C. A 3-log CFU/g increase for skipjack occurred at 22 to 24 h at 21°C and at 10 to 14 h at 27°C. The toxin production in skipjack started at 20 to 22 h at 21°C and at 8 to 10 h at 27°C. Toxin production was observed before a 3-log increase was achieved in albacore samples at 21°C. Under all conditions, toxins were detected when the cell density of S. aureus was 6 log CFU/g.

Overall, significantly faster S. aureus growth was observed in albacore compared with skipjack (P < 0.05), possibly owing to differences in sample composition (e.g., pH and salt content).

The data developed from this study can be used by the tuna industry to model the growth and enterotoxin production of S. aureus and to design manufacturing controls that ensure food safety.

 

 

It is true that post-handling after cooking is a potential source of contamination with S.aureus and other species. Indeed this is a well-known hazard for all RTE-destined products. The risk will also be related to the time involved. Nonetheless appropriate GMP/environmental temperature should enable control of this hazard.

 

According to the thesis mentioned, in a typical canning process using frozen, pre-cooked product, the thawing apparently takes place at elevated temperatures. This is also a potential hazard IMO if involving extended times. (IMEX of non-precooked raw materials,  the thawing is preferably done at low temperatures to prevent microbial growth. But this of course can substantially increase the process time).

 

I noticed these 2 thesis comments -

 

While  outbreaks  of  staphylococcal  food  poisoning  have  not  been  associated  with commercially canned tuna, they have been linked to canned, smoked and salted products, boiled paste and sausages where the growth of competing organisms are inhibited (Bryan,1980; Nakano et al., 2004; Simon and Sanjeev, 2007).

.

 

 When  the  pre-cooked  tuna  meat  samples  were  inoculated  with  S.aureus at levels of 103-4  CFU/g, SEA [S.aureus enterotoxin A), SEB, and SED were detected in all samples after 36 h of incubation at 37°C. However, a thermal process of 121°C for 15 min or 111°C for 40 min destroyed all enterotoxins.

 

The published report of above thesis contained these summary comments in the abstract  which are somewhat at variance with data in uppermost  quote -

 

Total S. aureus counts in albacore and skipjack samples increased by greater than 3 log CFU/g after 6 and 8 h of exposure to 35 to 37 °C, respectively. All samples became spoiled after 10 h of exposure to 35 to 37 °C, while no enterotoxin was detected in any samples. However, enterotoxins were detected in albacore loin and other samples after 12 and 24 h of incubation at 35 to 37 °C, respectively. Frozen precooked tuna meat should be used for producing canned tuna within 6 to 8 h of thawing to avoid product spoilage and potential enterotoxin production by S. aureus in contaminated precooked tuna meat.

 

 

I'm unsure what time/temperature is involved in commercial tuna canning but perhaps the third quote may help to explain the absence of any reported safety incidents for tuna if toxin had been produced.

 

JFI i attach an additional related (2018) paper -

 

Attached File  Microbiological Quality- Safety of Skipjack Tuna Loins for Canning.pdf   393.23KB   14 downloads

 

Net result IMO is to reinforce previous conclusion - need actual Process Data.


Kind Regards,

 

Charles.C





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