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Is a high Yeast and Mould Count a quality or food safety issue?


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fuse_23

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Posted 01 June 2021 - 03:01 AM

Hi, how you consider yeast and mould count, is it safety or quality issue if it is out of specification?



Charles.C

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Posted 01 June 2021 - 07:05 AM

Hi,

 

 

How you consider yeast and mould count, is it safety or quality issue if it is out of specification?

 

The answer might depend on what Produce is involved and the interpretation of "safety". I have focussed on HACCP "hazards"

 

IMEX "Yeast" is not considered a FS concern. Excepting the caveat above, "Mould" and Y&M count are usually not considered a haccp hazard. Some authors may disagree (see below).

 

Some examples -

 

Unlike bacteria, yeasts and molds are eukaryotic organism in the fungus kingdom. Most of them belong to the phyla Ascomycota and Zygomycota. Yeasts and molds are commonly enumerated in foods as quality indicators. They have no predictive value for the occurrence of toxigenic fungi or other pathogens. As a group, the yeasts and molds are diverse and can grow on virtually any foodstuff.

Attached File  YM-7.pdf   140.46KB   2 downloads

 

 

Yeast and/or Mould are not mentioned in the (non-exhaustive) list of Potential Hazards in the Draft FDA Guidance for Preventive Controls or as hazards within the (Appendix) Tables of Food Categories-

Attached File  YM-8.pdf   87.02KB   3 downloads

 

 

 Generally, yeast and molds do not pose a biological hazard in food. Some molds produce hazardous toxins, but these toxins are considered chemical hazards.

Attached File  YM 1.pdf   63.54KB   9 downloads

 

Yeast and Mould Counts
Yeast and Mould (fungal) are generally regarded as members of the spoilage organism group.
However, there are no guidelines for result interpretation in any FSANZ document.

Attached File  YM - 2.pdf   749.65KB   8 downloads

 

Yeast and mold cause food to spoil but do not cause foodborne illness.

- - - - -

- - - - -

Some molds cause allergic reactions and respiratory problems. And a few molds, in the right conditions, produce mycotoxins (or poisons) that can make you sick.

[!!!!]

Attached File  YM-3.pdf   165.06KB   8 downloads

Attached File  YM-4.png   136.23KB   2 downloads

Attached File  YM-4a.pdf   4.52MB   9 downloads

 

(HACCP) Types of Hazards

There are four types of hazards that you need to consider:

Microbiological hazards

Microbiological hazards include bacteria, yeasts, moulds and viruses. 

Chemical hazards

Chemical hazards include water, food contact materials, cleaning agents, pest control substances, contaminants (environmental, agricultural and process e.g. acrylamide), pesticides, biocides and food additives.

Physical hazards

Physical hazards include glass, packaging, jewellery, pest droppings, screws etc. 

Allergens

This refers to the risk associated with the unintended presence of one or more of the 14 EU listed food allergens due to cross-contamination
[!!!!]

Attached File  YM-5.pdf   131.18KB   7 downloads

.

Mould can often be looked upon as a quality problem and is overlooked in terms of HACCP work. It is not the growth of mould itself that represents a health risk, but any mycotoxins in the product that represent a risk for the consumer..

- - - - - - - - -

- - - - - -- - - -

In the HACCP plan, knowledge is needed about which mould fungi are a problem and whether these fungi can produce mycotoxins. A risk analysis must therefore be made of the consequences of mould growth on the products. It is also important to focus on air quality and ventilation, to prevent the spread of fungal spores around the premises

:thumbup:

Attached File  Ym-6.pdf   254.98KB   7 downloads

 

 


Edited by Charles.C, 05 June 2021 - 04:29 PM.
added

Kind Regards,

 

Charles.C


MDaleDDF

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Posted 01 June 2021 - 02:40 PM

I consider it a quality issue here, but it's kind of moot if it's out of spec.   Out of spec triggers a CA for me, irregardless. 



Charles.C

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Posted 01 June 2021 - 03:06 PM

I consider it a quality issue here, but it's kind of moot if it's out of spec.   Out of spec triggers a CA for me, irregardless. 

 Not from a HACCP  POV. (assuming "quality" = non-safety related)


Kind Regards,

 

Charles.C


Ryan M.

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Posted 03 June 2021 - 01:49 PM

The FS concern comes with potential toxins produced from certain molds.  As Charles stated it depends on the product and your environment.

 

About 8 years I had a hellacious time with a date supplier and aflatoxin levels exceeding spec.  Aflatoxin is produced by molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus.  If you have a recurring mold problem I would have the specific genres and species identified.  But, you should still take care of root cause of the mold regardless.



Scampi

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Posted 03 June 2021 - 02:57 PM

IMHO they are both FS issues

 

Yeast could cause product spoilage prior to expected BB date, and could also cause adjustments to a product pH 

 

Molds cause illness even by breathing them 

 

Charles, I disagree with your HACCP inference re: Y&M, both are always included in my HA and are listed on the CFIA hazard database


Please stop referring to me as Sir/sirs


Charles.C

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Posted 03 June 2021 - 03:24 PM

IMHO they are both FS issues

 

Yeast could cause product spoilage prior to expected BB date, and could also cause adjustments to a product pH 

 

Molds cause illness even by breathing them 

 

Charles, I disagree with your HACCP inference re: Y&M, both are always included in my HA and are listed on the CFIA hazard database

 

Hi Scampi,

 

Product spoilage is regarded as a hazard by CFIA ?

 

Re Yeast - Great !. You can be the first person (?)  to ask CFIA how they justify their "blanket" inclusion.

 

I guess Brie is banned in Canada,


Kind Regards,

 

Charles.C


Scampi

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Posted 03 June 2021 - 03:39 PM

Yes, if product spoils BEFORE the validated best before date, it's a FS issue......you're legally bound by the dating 

 

Brie is not banned, and neither is blue cheese

 

but if I produce a shelf stable product that is no longer stable due to y/m activity, that's a process failure


Please stop referring to me as Sir/sirs


Charles.C

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Posted 03 June 2021 - 03:47 PM

Yes, if product spoils BEFORE the validated best before date, it's a FS issue......you're legally bound by the dating 

 

Brie is not banned, and neither is blue cheese

 

but if I produce a shelf stable product that is no longer stable due to y/m activity, that's a process failure

 

 

^^^^^ (red) Great ! Please provide a textual validation.

 

Seriously, all yeasts and moulds are obviously not FS hazards.


Kind Regards,

 

Charles.C


Scampi

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Posted 03 June 2021 - 04:11 PM

"

Determining the durable life

It is the responsibility of the manufacturer or retailer to determine:

  • if the product has a durable life of 90 days or less, and
  • the specific durable life information for the products they sell.

Food producers and retailers that manufacture food products base the date on how long an unopened product will retain its wholesomeness, taste, nutritional value, and any other qualities, as well as other factors such as the type of product, how it is processed and how it is packaged and stored.

The durable life of products or categories is not set out in regulations.

 

As per CFIA, the word wholesomeness is the determination


Please stop referring to me as Sir/sirs


Charles.C

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Posted 03 June 2021 - 05:07 PM

"

Determining the durable life

It is the responsibility of the manufacturer or retailer to determine:

  • if the product has a durable life of 90 days or less, and
  • the specific durable life information for the products they sell.

Food producers and retailers that manufacture food products base the date on how long an unopened product will retain its wholesomeness, taste, nutritional value, and any other qualities, as well as other factors such as the type of product, how it is processed and how it is packaged and stored.

The durable life of products or categories is not set out in regulations.

 

As per CFIA, the word wholesomeness is the determination

 

(Getting a bit OT)

 

Sorry but I don't see any mention of Spoilage or Safety (or HACCP. for that matter)

 

TBH, to me the above quote almost  implies that Safety is never a factor in determining shelf life. Would be nonsense of course.

 

IMEX "Wholesomeness" is (HACCP) interpreted as related to characteristics which are not  related to Consumer Safety.  afaik this is as per USFDA but Singapore no idea, eg -

 

https://www.fda.gov/...tion-guidelines

 

PS - I was unable to locate CFIA's definition of "Wholesomeness" in respect to "Safety". The nearest I could find was -

 

 

Egg Grading - By The Canadian Food Inspection Agency - Grade requirements are set for eggs to protect the consuming public from undue risk. In grading eggs, the factors of interior quality, weight, cleanliness and shell construction are considered. These factors are related to safety, wholesomeness and quality.

https://www.thepoult...les/egg-grading

(Maybe usage in Inspection/Haccp and in Labelling are different)


Kind Regards,

 

Charles.C


Scampi

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Posted 03 June 2021 - 06:03 PM

Contamination of foods by yeasts and molds can result in substantial economic losses to producer, processor, and consumer. Several foodborne molds, and possibly yeasts, may also be hazardous to human or animal health because of their ability to produce toxic metabolites known as mycotoxins.Oct. 31, 2017
As for CFIA, the word wholesomeness would shall this with the USDA
What is meant by "wholesome" in regards to foods?

 

Jul 17, 2019
KNOWLEDGE ARTICLE
Wholesome means "promoting the health of the body." There is no official United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) definition of the word for use in labeling a product. However, all USDA-inspected products would be considered "wholesome."
 
My ultimate point here is to simply argue that yeasts and molds should not be seen as a quality issue only

Please stop referring to me as Sir/sirs


Charles.C

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Posted 03 June 2021 - 07:01 PM

 

Contamination of foods by yeasts and molds can result in substantial economic losses to producer, processor, and consumer. Several foodborne molds, and possibly yeasts, may also be hazardous to human or animal health because of their ability to produce toxic metabolites known as mycotoxins.Oct. 31, 2017
As for CFIA, the word wholesomeness would shall this with the USDA
What is meant by "wholesome" in regards to foods?

 

Jul 17, 2019
KNOWLEDGE ARTICLE
Wholesome means "promoting the health of the body." There is no official United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) definition of the word for use in labeling a product. However, all USDA-inspected products would be considered "wholesome."
 
My ultimate point here is to simply argue that yeasts and molds should not be seen as a quality issue only

 

 

I can only suggest to have another look at the examples in Post 2

Our hazard analyses for products like yoghurt, kefir, bread, cheese will obviously be considerably different.


Edited by Charles.C, 03 June 2021 - 07:18 PM.
emended

Kind Regards,

 

Charles.C


Ryan M.

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Posted 03 June 2021 - 08:02 PM

Adulteration is the keyword.  In the growth of yeast or mold does the food become adulterated.  If so, potential food safety issue.  However, FDA and USDA do not state specifically "food safety" rather they use the term "adulteration" or "adulterated".



Charles.C

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Posted 03 June 2021 - 08:21 PM

Adulteration is the keyword.  In the growth of yeast or mold does the food become adulterated.  If so, potential food safety issue.  However, FDA and USDA do not state specifically "food safety" rather they use the term "adulteration" or "adulterated".

 

Hi Ryan,

 

I suspect you are referring to FSMA, the poor man's HACCP.

 

No mention of adulteration in the iconic 1st FDA Link/Post 11.

 

Although it's certainly used as a fail-safe to sabotage any hopeful users of the HACCP metal 6mm  critical limit.


Kind Regards,

 

Charles.C


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Posted 03 June 2021 - 08:28 PM

21 U.S. Code § 342 - Adulterated food

 

https://www.law.corn... unfit for food.

 

Hi Ryan,

 

I suspect you are referring to FSMA, the poor man's HACCP.

 

No mention of adulteration in the iconic 1st FDA Link/Post 11.

 

Although it's certainly used as a fail-safe to sabotage any hopeful users of the HACCP metal 6mm  critical limit.



Charles.C

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Posted 03 June 2021 - 08:42 PM

21 U.S. Code § 342 - Adulterated food

 

https://www.law.corn... unfit for food.

 

 

And yet -

 

The fact that a food is contaminated with pathogens (harmful microorganisms such as bacteria,  viruses, or protozoa) may, or may not, render it adulterated.

 

Generally, for ready-to-eat foods, the presence of pathogens will render the food adulterated. For example, the presence of Salmonella on fresh fruits or vegetables or in ready-to-eat meat or poultry products (such as luncheon meats) will render those products adulterated.

 

For meat and poultry products, which are regulated by USDA, the rules are more complicated. Ready-to-eat meat and poultry products contaminated with pathogens, such as Salmonella or Listeria monocytogenes, are adulterated. (Note that hotdogs are considered ready-to-eat products.) For raw meat or poultry products, the presence of pathogens will not always render a product adulterated (because raw meat and poultry products are intended to be cooked, and proper cooking should kill pathogens). Raw poultry contaminated with Salmonella is not adulterated. However, USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) has ruled that raw meat or poultry products contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 are adulterated. This is because normal cooking methods may not reduce E. coli O157:H7 below infectious levels. E. coli O157:H7 is the only pathogen that is considered an adulterant when present in raw meat or poultry products.

 

https://en.wikipedia...dulterated_food

 

Again, no cross-links to haccp. Or FSMA.

 

Actually I just noticed that FSMA is oriented to intentional adulteration. Sighhhh


Kind Regards,

 

Charles.C


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Posted 04 June 2021 - 06:07 PM

And yet -

 

 

Again, no cross-links to haccp. Or FSMA.

 

Actually I just noticed that FSMA is oriented to intentional adulteration. Sighhhh

 

 

Actually I just noticed that FSMA is oriented to intentional adulteration. Sighhhh  -  what are you talking about?  part of the law is food defense / intentional adulteration.   how is HACCP superior to  hazard analysis risk based preventive controls (poor mans HACCP)?



Charles.C

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Posted 05 June 2021 - 02:12 AM

Actually I just noticed that FSMA is oriented to intentional adulteration. Sighhhh  -  what are you talking about?  part of the law is food defense / intentional adulteration.   how is HACCP superior to  hazard analysis risk based preventive controls (poor mans HACCP)?

 

Hi ksr1,

 

It's your choice (other than any Regulatory requirements), eg -

 

Compare -

 

At a fundamental level, HACCP focuses on preventing post-process contamination, whereas the FSMA food safety plan takes a more preventive focus, identifying potential risks and implementing appropriate controls to proactively prevent contamination. The food safety plan focuses on science or risk-based preventive controls, whereas HACCP focuses on CCPs.
Attached File  FSMA Training - HACCP Isn't Enough.pdf   679.24KB   1 downloads
(2016)

 

To -
 

The risk-based, proactive control approach used for HACCP food safety plan development is globally accepted as the most effective way for food manufacturers to prevent recalls, outbreaks, and associated financial losses. The Preventive Controls Rule has adopted many of the established HACCP principles while adding new terminologies and procedures for food safety plan development.

Attached File  Understanding FSMA - HACCP, HARPC and the Preventive Controls for Human Food Rule.pdf   2.26MB   3 downloads

(2020)

 

 

 

Any thoughts regarding Y&M ?


Edited by Charles.C, 05 June 2021 - 02:31 PM.
edited

Kind Regards,

 

Charles.C





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