Jump to content

  • Quick Navigation
Photo
- - - - -

Salmonella - How Tough are You?


  • You cannot start a new topic
  • Please log in to reply
24 replies to this topic

Poll: Salmonella - How Tough are You? (25 member(s) have cast votes)

Compared to all other bacteria, viruses and other vomit inducing bugs

  1. Tyson – pound for pound the scariest bacteria in town (3 votes [12.00%])

    Percentage of vote: 12.00%

  2. Heavy weight – I wouldn’t want to meet him on a dark night (9 votes [36.00%])

    Percentage of vote: 36.00%

  3. Middle weight – Hmmm…to fight or to flight (11 votes [44.00%])

    Percentage of vote: 44.00%

  4. Light weight – You talking to me? (2 votes [8.00%])

    Percentage of vote: 8.00%

Vote Guests cannot vote

#1 Simon

Simon

    IFSQN...it's My Life

  • IFSQN Admin
  • 12,422 posts
  • 1311 thanks
669
Excellent

  • United Kingdom
    United Kingdom
  • Gender:Male
  • Location:Manchester
  • Interests:Married to Michelle, Father of three boys (Oliver, Jacob and Louis). I enjoy cycling, walking and travelling, watching sport, especially football and Manchester United. Oh and I love food and beer and wine.

Posted 01 November 2009 - 03:33 PM

Next under the microscope in our “How Tough are You” series we are taking a look at the ever popular Salmonella.

With regard to Salmonella:

- What does it look like?
- What foods can it be found on and in?
- Where does it come from?
- What illness or physical symptoms can it cause in humans?
- How do we prevent, control and eradicate it?
- Has it ever caused you or someone you know harm?
- What is its toughness rating – please vote!


hand-pointing-down.gif
 
Get FREE bitesize education with IFSQN webinar recordings.
 
Download this handy excel for desktop access to over 140 Food Safety Friday's webinar recordings.
https://www.ifsqn.com/fsf/Free%20Food%20Safety%20Videos.xlsx

 
Check out IFSQN’s extensive library of FREE food safety videos
https://www.ifsqn.com/food_safety_videos.html

 

recommend-us-on-facebook.png


#2 Charles.C

Charles.C

    Grade - FIFSQN

  • IFSQN Moderator
  • 18,232 posts
  • 5111 thanks
1,110
Excellent

  • Earth
    Earth
  • Gender:Male
  • Interests:SF
    TV
    Movies

Posted 01 November 2009 - 03:47 PM

Dear All,

Strictly speaking, it depends which Salmonella sp. is under discussion out of the 2000+ since although they are all categorised as pathogenic human-wise, the "amount" can vary enormously. No doubt pigs would agree if considering S.pullorum. :smile:

Leaves plenty of room for discussion anyway.

Charles.C

added - correction, sorry for memory slip, for "pigs" read "chickens" :smile:


Kind Regards,

 

Charles.C


#3 Tony-C

Tony-C

    Grade - FIFSQN

  • IFSQN Fellow
  • 3,378 posts
  • 1011 thanks
279
Excellent

  • United Kingdom
    United Kingdom
  • Gender:Male
  • Location:Koh Samui
  • Interests:My main interests are sports particularly football, pool, scuba diving, skiing and ten pin bowling.

Posted 02 November 2009 - 03:05 AM

Dear All,

Strictly speaking, it depends which Salmonella sp. is under discussion out of the 2000+ since although they are all categorised as pathogenic human-wise, the "amount" can vary enormously. No doubt pigs would agree if considering S.pullorum. :smile:

Leaves plenty of room for discussion anyway.

Charles.C


Absolutely, a total of 2,501 different Salmonella serotypes had been identified up to 2004. While all serotypes can cause disease in humans, they are often classified according to their adaptation to animal hosts. A few serotypes have a limited host spectrum, for example Salmonella Typhi in primates; Salmonella Dublin in cattle; and Salmonella Choleraesuis in pigs.

The naming of strains is now as per this example:
Salmonella typhimurium has become Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Typhimurium and is usually shortened to Salmonella Typhimurium.

Regards,

Tony :smile:

#4 Simon

Simon

    IFSQN...it's My Life

  • IFSQN Admin
  • 12,422 posts
  • 1311 thanks
669
Excellent

  • United Kingdom
    United Kingdom
  • Gender:Male
  • Location:Manchester
  • Interests:Married to Michelle, Father of three boys (Oliver, Jacob and Louis). I enjoy cycling, walking and travelling, watching sport, especially football and Manchester United. Oh and I love food and beer and wine.

Posted 02 November 2009 - 08:14 AM

See this is what happens when somebody who clearly knows nothing about the subject starts a poll.

OK which is the toughest species of Salmonella? Don't tell me there are loads.

Regards,
Simon


hand-pointing-down.gif
 
Get FREE bitesize education with IFSQN webinar recordings.
 
Download this handy excel for desktop access to over 140 Food Safety Friday's webinar recordings.
https://www.ifsqn.com/fsf/Free%20Food%20Safety%20Videos.xlsx

 
Check out IFSQN’s extensive library of FREE food safety videos
https://www.ifsqn.com/food_safety_videos.html

 

recommend-us-on-facebook.png


#5 Jean

Jean

    Grade - SIFSQN

  • IFSQN Senior
  • 429 posts
  • 7 thanks
4
Neutral

  • India
    India
  • Gender:Female

Posted 02 November 2009 - 08:28 AM

Salmonella infection — Comprehensive overview covers signs, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of this bacterial disease.DefinitionSalmonella infection is a common bacterial disease that affects the intestinal tract. Salmonella bacteria typically live in the intestines of animals and humans and are shed through feces. Humans become infected most frequently through contaminated water or food sources — such as poultry, meat and eggs.

Typically, people with salmonella infection develop diarrhea, fever and abdominal cramps within 12 to 72 hours. Signs and symptoms of salmonella infection generally last four to seven days. Most healthy people recover without specific treatment.

In some cases, the diarrhea associated with salmonella infection can be extremely dehydrating and require prompt medical attention. Life-threatening complications may also develop should the infection spread beyond your intestines. Your risk of salmonella infection is higher if you travel to countries with poor sanitation.

SymptomsThere are more than 2,000 varieties of salmonella bacteria, but only about a dozen of them cause illnesses in people. Most of these illnesses can be classified as gastroenteritis, often featuring severe diarrhea. But a few varieties of salmonella bacteria result in typhoid fever, a sometimes deadly disease that is more common in developing countries.

Gastroenteritis
Salmonella-induced gastroenteritis is most often caused by eating raw or undercooked meat, poultry, eggs or egg products. The incubation period ranges from several hours to two days. Signs and symptoms may include:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Headache
  • Muscle pains
  • Blood in the stool
Typhoid fever
Most people who develop typhoid fever in the United States have recently traveled in a country where the disease is more common. The incubation period ranges from five to 21 days following infection. Signs and symptoms may include:

  • Diarrhea or constipation
  • Fever over 102 F (38.8 C)
  • Slightly raised, rose-colored spots on your upper chest
  • Cough
  • Mental confusion
  • A slowing of your heartbeat
  • Enlargement of your liver and spleen
CausesSalmonella bacteria live in the intestines of people, animals and birds. Most people are infected with salmonella by eating foods that have been contaminated by feces. Commonly infected foods include:

  • Raw meat, poultry and seafood. Feces may get onto raw meat and poultry during the butchering process. Seafood may be contaminated if it is harvested from contaminated water.
  • Raw eggs. While an egg's shell may seem to be a perfect barrier to contamination, some infected chickens produce eggs that contain salmonella before the shell is even formed. Raw eggs are used in homemade versions of mayonnaise and hollandaise sauce.
  • Fruits and vegetables. Some fresh produce, particularly imported varieties, may be watered in the field or washed during processing with water contaminated with salmonella. Contamination can also occur in the kitchen, when juices from raw meat and poultry come into contact with uncooked foods, such as salads.
Many foods become contaminated when prepared by people who don't wash their hands thoroughly after using the toilet or changing a diaper. Infection also can occur if you touch something that is contaminated and then put your fingers in your mouth. This includes pets — especially birds and reptiles.

Risk factorsFactors that may increase your risk of salmonella infection include activities that may bring you into closer contact with salmonella bacteria and health problems that may weaken your resistance to infection in general.

Increased exposure

  • International travel. Salmonella infection, including the varieties that cause typhoid fever, is more common in developing countries with poor sanitation.
  • Owning a pet bird or reptile. Some pets, particularly birds and reptiles, can be infected with salmonella bacteria.
  • Living in groups. People who live in college dorms or nursing homes might be at higher risk of infection simply because they are exposed to more people. In addition, food prepared at institutions often uses large amounts of ground meat or unshelled eggs that have been pooled from many different sources. This allows one infected egg or one pound of infected hamburger to contaminate the entire batch.
Stomach or bowel disorders
Your body has many natural defenses against salmonella infection. For example, strong stomach acid can kill many types of salmonella bacteria. But some medical problems or medications can short-circuit these natural defenses. Examples include:

  • Antacids. Lowering your stomach's acidity allows more salmonella bacteria to survive.
  • Inflammatory bowel disease. This disorder damages the lining of your intestines, which makes it easier for salmonella bacteria to take hold.
  • Recent use of antibiotics. This can reduce the number of "good" bacteria in your intestines, which may impair your ability to fight off a salmonella infection.
Immune problems
The following medical problems or medications appear to increase your risk of contracting salmonella by impairing your immune system.

  • AIDS
  • Sickle cell disease
  • Malaria
  • Anti-rejection drugs taken after organ transplants
  • Corticosteroids
ComplicationsSalmonella infection itself isn't life-threatening. However, in certain people — especially children, older adults, transplant recipients and people with a weakened immune system — the development of complications can be dangerous.

Dehydration
If you can't drink enough liquids to replace the fluid you're losing from persistent diarrhea, you may become dehydrated. Warning signs include:

  • Sunken eyes
  • Dry mouth and tongue
  • Reduced production of tears
  • Decreased urine output
Bacteremia
If salmonella infection enters your bloodstream (bacteremia), it can infect tissues throughout your body, including:

  • The tissues surrounding your brain and spinal cord (meningitis)
  • The lining of your heart or valves (endocarditis)
  • Your bones or bone marrow (osteomyelitis)
Reactive arthritis
People who have had salmonella are at higher risk of developing reactive arthritis. Also known as Reiter's syndrome, reactive arthritis typically causes:

  • Eye irritation
  • Painful urination
  • Painful joints
Preparing for your appointmentMost people don't need to seek medical attention for a salmonella infection, because it clears up on its own within a few days. However, in cases involving infants, young children and older or immunocompromised adults, you may want to call your doctor if the illness lasts more than a few days, is associated with high fever or bloody stools, or if it appears to be causing dehydration.

What to expect from your doctor
Your doctor will need to know:

  • When the illness began
  • The frequency of the vomiting or diarrhea
  • Whether the vomit or diarrhea contains bile, mucus or blood
  • If you have a fever
  • If you've recently traveled outside the country
Tests and diagnosisSalmonella infection can be detected by testing a sample of your stool. However, this test may not be very useful because most people have recovered from their symptoms by the time the test results return.

If your doctor suspects that you may have a salmonella infection in your bloodstream, he or she may suggest testing a sample of your blood for the bacteria.

Treatments and drugsMedications

  • Antidiarrheals. Medications like loperamide (Imodium) can help relieve cramping, but they may also prolong the diarrhea associated with salmonella infection.
  • Antibiotics. If your doctor suspects that salmonella bacteria have entered your bloodstream, he or she may prescribe antibiotics to kill the bacteria.
PreventionSalmonella infection is contagious, so take precautions to avoid spreading bacteria to others. Preventive methods are especially important when preparing food or providing care for infants, older adults and people with compromised immune systems.

Wash your hands
Washing your hands thoroughly can help prevent the transfer of salmonella bacteria to your mouth or to any food you're preparing. Wash your hands after you:

  • Use the toilet
  • Change a diaper
  • Handle raw meat or poultry
  • Clean up pet feces
  • Touch reptiles or birds
Keep things separate

  • Store raw meat, poultry and seafood away from other foods in your refrigerator
  • If possible, have two cutting boards in your kitchen - one for raw meat and the other for fruits and vegetables
  • Never place cooked food on an unwashed plate that previously held raw meat
Avoid eating raw eggs
Cookie dough, homemade ice cream and eggnog all contain raw eggs. If you must consume raw eggs, ensure that they have been pasteurized.

Salmonella infection function PopUp(documentID){window.document.open(documentID,"","width=550,height=450,menubar=no,status=no,location=no,toolbar=no,scrollbars
=yes,resizable=yes")}Salmonella infection — Comprehensive overview covers signs, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of this bacterial disease.DefinitionSalmonella infection is a common bacterial disease that affects the intestinal tract. Salmonella bacteria typically live in the intestines of animals and humans and are shed through feces. Humans become infected most frequently through contaminated water or food sources — such as poultry, meat and eggs.

Typically, people with salmonella infection develop diarrhea, fever and abdominal cramps within 12 to 72 hours. Signs and symptoms of salmonella infection generally last four to seven days. Most healthy people recover without specific treatment.

In some cases, the diarrhea associated with salmonella infection can be extremely dehydrating and require prompt medical attention. Life-threatening complications may also develop should the infection spread beyond your intestines. Your risk of salmonella infection is higher if you travel to countries with poor sanitation.

SymptomsThere are more than 2,000 varieties of salmonella bacteria, but only about a dozen of them cause illnesses in people. Most of these illnesses can be classified as gastroenteritis, often featuring severe diarrhea. But a few varieties of salmonella bacteria result in typhoid fever, a sometimes deadly disease that is more common in developing countries.

Gastroenteritis
Salmonella-induced gastroenteritis is most often caused by eating raw or undercooked meat, poultry, eggs or egg products. The incubation period ranges from several hours to two days. Signs and symptoms may include:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Headache
  • Muscle pains
  • Blood in the stool
Typhoid fever
Most people who develop typhoid fever in the United States have recently traveled in a country where the disease is more common. The incubation period ranges from five to 21 days following infection. Signs and symptoms may include:

  • Diarrhea or constipation
  • Fever over 102 F (38.8 C)
  • Slightly raised, rose-colored spots on your upper chest
  • Cough
  • Mental confusion
  • A slowing of your heartbeat
  • Enlargement of your liver and spleen
CausesSalmonella bacteria live in the intestines of people, animals and birds. Most people are infected with salmonella by eating foods that have been contaminated by feces. Commonly infected foods include:

  • Raw meat, poultry and seafood. Feces may get onto raw meat and poultry during the butchering process. Seafood may be contaminated if it is harvested from contaminated water.
  • Raw eggs. While an egg's shell may seem to be a perfect barrier to contamination, some infected chickens produce eggs that contain salmonella before the shell is even formed. Raw eggs are used in homemade versions of mayonnaise and hollandaise sauce.
  • Fruits and vegetables. Some fresh produce, particularly imported varieties, may be watered in the field or washed during processing with water contaminated with salmonella. Contamination can also occur in the kitchen, when juices from raw meat and poultry come into contact with uncooked foods, such as salads.
Many foods become contaminated when prepared by people who don't wash their hands thoroughly after using the toilet or changing a diaper. Infection also can occur if you touch something that is contaminated and then put your fingers in your mouth. This includes pets — especially birds and reptiles.

Risk factorsFactors that may increase your risk of salmonella infection include activities that may bring you into closer contact with salmonella bacteria and health problems that may weaken your resistance to infection in general.

Increased exposure

  • International travel. Salmonella infection, including the varieties that cause typhoid fever, is more common in developing countries with poor sanitation.
  • Owning a pet bird or reptile. Some pets, particularly birds and reptiles, can be infected with salmonella bacteria.
  • Living in groups. People who live in college dorms or nursing homes might be at higher risk of infection simply because they are exposed to more people. In addition, food prepared at institutions often uses large amounts of ground meat or unshelled eggs that have been pooled from many different sources. This allows one infected egg or one pound of infected hamburger to contaminate the entire batch.
Stomach or bowel disorders
Your body has many natural defenses against salmonella infection. For example, strong stomach acid can kill many types of salmonella bacteria. But some medical problems or medications can short-circuit these natural defenses. Examples include:

  • Antacids. Lowering your stomach's acidity allows more salmonella bacteria to survive.
  • Inflammatory bowel disease. This disorder damages the lining of your intestines, which makes it easier for salmonella bacteria to take hold.
  • Recent use of antibiotics. This can reduce the number of "good" bacteria in your intestines, which may impair your ability to fight off a salmonella infection.
Immune problems
The following medical problems or medications appear to increase your risk of contracting salmonella by impairing your immune system.

  • AIDS
  • Sickle cell disease
  • Malaria
  • Anti-rejection drugs taken after organ transplants
  • Corticosteroids
ComplicationsSalmonella infection itself isn't life-threatening. However, in certain people — especially children, older adults, transplant recipients and people with a weakened immune system — the development of complications can be dangerous.

Dehydration
If you can't drink enough liquids to replace the fluid you're losing from persistent diarrhea, you may become dehydrated. Warning signs include:

  • Sunken eyes
  • Dry mouth and tongue
  • Reduced production of tears
  • Decreased urine output
Bacteremia
If salmonella infection enters your bloodstream (bacteremia), it can infect tissues throughout your body, including:

  • The tissues surrounding your brain and spinal cord (meningitis)
  • The lining of your heart or valves (endocarditis)
  • Your bones or bone marrow (osteomyelitis)
Reactive arthritis
People who have had salmonella are at higher risk of developing reactive arthritis. Also known as Reiter's syndrome, reactive arthritis typically causes:

  • Eye irritation
  • Painful urination
  • Painful joints
Preparing for your appointmentMost people don't need to seek medical attention for a salmonella infection, because it clears up on its own within a few days. However, in cases involving infants, young children and older or immunocompromised adults, you may want to call your doctor if the illness lasts more than a few days, is associated with high fever or bloody stools, or if it appears to be causing dehydration.

What to expect from your doctor
Your doctor will need to know:

  • When the illness began
  • The frequency of the vomiting or diarrhea
  • Whether the vomit or diarrhea contains bile, mucus or blood
  • If you have a fever
  • If you've recently traveled outside the country
Tests and diagnosisSalmonella infection can be detected by testing a sample of your stool. However, this test may not be very useful because most people have recovered from their symptoms by the time the test results return.

If your doctor suspects that you may have a salmonella infection in your bloodstream, he or she may suggest testing a sample of your blood for the bacteria.

Treatments and drugsMedications

  • Antidiarrheals. Medications like loperamide (Imodium) can help relieve cramping, but they may also prolong the diarrhea associated with salmonella infection.
  • Antibiotics. If your doctor suspects that salmonella bacteria have entered your bloodstream, he or she may prescribe antibiotics to kill the bacteria.
PreventionSalmonella infection is contagious, so take precautions to avoid spreading bacteria to others. Preventive methods are especially important when preparing food or providing care for infants, older adults and people with compromised immune systems.

Wash your hands
Washing your hands thoroughly can help prevent the transfer of salmonella bacteria to your mouth or to any food you're preparing. Wash your hands after you:

  • Use the toilet
  • Change a diaper
  • Handle raw meat or poultry
  • Clean up pet feces
  • Touch reptiles or birds
Keep things separate

  • Store raw meat, poultry and seafood away from other foods in your refrigerator
  • If possible, have two cutting boards in your kitchen - one for raw meat and the other for fruits and vegetables
  • Never place cooked food on an unwashed plate that previously held raw meat
Avoid eating raw eggs
Cookie dough, homemade ice cream and eggnog all contain raw eggs. If you must consume raw eggs, ensure that they have been pasteurized.

Last updated 4/17/2009 12:00:00 AM
© 1998-2009 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER).
(extracted from Mayoclinic.com)
Best regards,

J

Only the curious will learn and only the resolute overcome the obstacles to learning. The quest quotient has always excited me more than the intelligence quotient. Eugene S Wilson

Thanked by 1 Member:

#6 Kamwenji Njuma

Kamwenji Njuma

    Grade - MIFSQN

  • IFSQN Member
  • 131 posts
  • 44 thanks
3
Neutral

  • Kenya
    Kenya
  • Gender:Male
  • Location:Nairobi,Kenya
  • Interests:Food safety,Quality,Hygiene and Agricultural consultancy.HACCP,BRC Food,ISO22000.ISO9001,GLOBALG.A.P,Etc

Posted 02 November 2009 - 08:50 AM

Dear Jean,

Thanks its a very comprehensive report about salmonella.

Regards,
Jeremy



#7 Charles.C

Charles.C

    Grade - FIFSQN

  • IFSQN Moderator
  • 18,232 posts
  • 5111 thanks
1,110
Excellent

  • Earth
    Earth
  • Gender:Male
  • Interests:SF
    TV
    Movies

Posted 02 November 2009 - 11:21 AM

Dear Simon,

OK which is the toughest species of Salmonella? Don't tell me there are loads.


Actually, i think this is an excellent addendum. :thumbup:

I hv seen very few (if any) premier leagues published but the range I hv seen quoted regarding human sensitivity is from approx 10 cells (bad bug book gives 15-20) to (from memory) several million. (the specific dose response is presumably the operational parameter). I imagine the famous S.typhi (Typhoid Mary, http://en.wikipedia....iki/Mary_Mallon ) is quite high on the activity scale. Conversely one particular species at the other end of the scale whose name I forget is (relatively) popular for demonstration / testing purposes.

I have not seen any reference to Salmonella species which are not pathogenic to humans but the reverse does apparently exist, S.typhi affects humans only and in this respect -

According to the World Health Organization, over 16 million people worldwide are infected with typhoid fever each year, with 500,000 to 600,000 of these cases proving to be fatal.

(http://en.wikipedia....wiki/Salmonella)

Possibly No.1 in respect to consequence.

Rgds / Charles.C

@Jean

Symptoms There are more than 2,000 varieties of salmonella bacteria, but only about a dozen of them cause illnesses in people.


I find this statement v. difficult to believe?? Maybe the reference meant to categorise the consequences somehow ?

eg

A total of 2 501 different Salmonella serotypes have been identified up to 2004. While all serotypes can cause disease in humans, they are often classified according to their adaptation to animal hosts.

( http://www.who.int/m...heets/fs139/en/ )

Kind Regards,

 

Charles.C


#8 Jean

Jean

    Grade - SIFSQN

  • IFSQN Senior
  • 429 posts
  • 7 thanks
4
Neutral

  • India
    India
  • Gender:Female

Posted 03 November 2009 - 05:46 AM

@Jean
QUOTE
Symptoms There are more than 2,000 varieties of salmonella bacteria, but only about a dozen of them cause illnesses in people.


I find this statement v. difficult to believe?? Maybe the reference meant to categorise the consequences somehow ?

eg
QUOTE
A total of 2 501 different Salmonella serotypes have been identified up to 2004. While all serotypes can cause disease in humans, they are often classified according to their adaptation to animal hosts.

( http://www.who.int/m...heets/fs139/en/ )


Dear Charles,

Yes, I agree with you too. Though, I have no idea of what they meant with that particular statement. I have found a lot of useful info, again as a refresher.

Salmonella is a zoonotic pathogen and is widespread in humans and animals worldwide. The serovars of Salmonella can be found predominantly in one particular host, can be ubiquitous or can have an unknown habitat.


"Clinical laboratories frequently report salmonellae as one of three species, differentiated on the basis of serologic and biochemical reactions: S. ty´phi, S. choleraesu´is, and S. enteri´tidis; the last contains all serotypes except the first two. In this system many strains familiarly named as species are designated as serotypes of S. enteritidis. Salmonellae may also be grouped into five subgenera (I–V) on the basis of biochemical reactions and further into species on the basis of antigenic reactions; subgenus I contains most of the species. Pathogenic species include S. arizo´nae (salmonellosis), S. choleraesuis (a strain pathogenic for pigs that may infect humans), S. enteritidis (gastroenteritis), S. enteritidis serotype paraty´phi A (paratyphoid fever), S. typhi (typhoid fever), and S. enteritidis serotype typhimu´rium (food poisoning and paratyphoid fever)".



http://medical-dicti....com/Salmonella




Salmonella nomenclature is complicated. Initially each Salmonella species was named according to clinical considerations,[6] e.g., Salmonella typhi-murium (mouse typhoid fever), S. cholerae-suis (hog cholera). After it was recognized that host specificity did not exist for many species, new strains (or serovar, short for serological variants) received species names according to the location at which the new strain was isolated. Later, molecular findings led to the hypothesis that Salmonella consisted of only one species,[7] S. enteric, and the serovar were classified into six groups,[8] two of which are medically relevant. But as this now formalized nomenclature[9][10] is not in harmony with the traditional usage familiar to specialists in microbiology and infectologists, the traditional nomenclature is common. Currently, there are two recognized species: S. enterica and S. bongori, with six main subspecies: enterica (I), salamae (II), arizonae (IIIa), diarizonae (IIIb), houtenae (IV), and indica (VI).[11] Historically, serotype (V) was bongori, which is now considered its own species.

Genetics
Serovar Typhimurium has considerable diversity and may be very old. The majority of the isolates belong to a single clonal complex. Isolates are divided into phage types, but some phage types do not have a single origin as determined using mutational changes. Phage type DT104 is heterogeneous and represented in multiple sequence types, with its multidrug-resistant variant being the most successful and causing epidemics in many parts of the world.

Serovar Typhi is relatively young compared to Typhimurium, and probably originated approximately 30,000-50,000 years ago.



Medically relevant representatives
S. enterica ssp. arizonae, in cold-blooded animals, poultry, mammals
S. choleraesuis (Bacillus paratyphoid B and C), intestinal commensalists in pigs, pathogenic if resistance is weak; humans can be infected by ingesting sick animals; the bacteria causes septicemic Salmonellosis in swine.
S. enteritidis, in the intestines of cattle, rodents, ducks (and their eggs) and humans; causes calf paratyphoid fever and acute gastroenteritis in humans
S. paratyphi
S. paratyphi A, solely a human pathogen, causes paratyphoid A, transmission by contact and infected food or water
S. paratyphi B, in central Europe usually a human pathogen, causes paratyphoid B; transmission by contact and infected food, water or fly excrement
S. typhi, occurs in temperate and subtropical zones, the human pathogen of typhus abdominalis; transmission by contact and infected food, water or fly excrement; 3–5 % of all persons falling ill remain permanent carriers of the pathogen
S. typhimurium, causes a usually fatal, feverish intestinal infection in birds and mammals; conveyed by contaminated foodstuffs; causes Salmonella enteritis ("food poisoning") in humans
S. dublin, one of the pathogens causing cattle salmonellosis
S. typhisuis, one of the pathogens causing hog salmonellosis
http://www.answers.c...opic/salmonella




While all serotypes can cause disease in humans, they are often classified according to their adaptation to animal hosts. A few serotypes have a limited host-spectrum (affect only one or a few animal species), for example Salmonella Typhi in primates; Salmonella Dublin in cattle; and Salmonella Choleraesuis in pigs. When these strains cause disease in humans, it is often invasive and can be life-threatening. Most serotypes, however, have a broad host-spectrum. Typically, such strains cause gastroenteritis, which is often uncomplicated and does not need treatment, but can be severe in the young, the elderly and patients with weakened immunity. This group features Salmonella Enteriditis and Salmonella Typhimurium, the two most important serotypes for salmonellosis transmitted from animals to humans.

http://www.who.int/m...heets/fs139/en/



All Salmonella serotypes are considered potentially pathogenic. Some serotypes are host- specific, but the many can affect different hosts. The known serotypes of Salmonella may be grouped depending on the host range such as:53

Those highly adapted to human hosts -- This group includes S. typhi and S. paratyphi types A, B, and C which are pathogenic only in humans.
Those adapted to animal hosts -- This group includes two common strains, S. dublin and S. choleraesuis, which also cause disease in humans.
Those unadapted to specific hosts -- This group constitutes S. enteritidis and includes > 2000 serotypes that cause gastroenteritis. They account for 85 percent of all Salmonella infections in the U.S.
S. enterica Serovars

S. enterica serovars cause intestinal diseases and represent more than 99.5 percent of the Salmonella serotypes isolated from humans and other warm-blooded animals. The three main serovars of S. enterica are:54, 51

S. enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi) -- This bacterium is the causative agent of typhoid fever. It is not widespread in the U.S. but is very common in developing countries. It can only infect humans and no other host has been identified.
S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) -- This Salmonella species is one of the most common causes of foodborne illnesses in the U.S. It causes a typhoid-like disease in mice and does not cause as severe a disease in humans as S. typhi.
S. enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. enteritidis) -- This bacterium is the most common cause of foodborne illness in the U.S. It usually infects chicken flocks, spreads from hen to hen, and rapidly transmits through the food chain causing the disease in humans. This foodborne disease is almost identical to that of S. typhimurium which is very closely related.
Best regards,

J

Only the curious will learn and only the resolute overcome the obstacles to learning. The quest quotient has always excited me more than the intelligence quotient. Eugene S Wilson

#9 Simon

Simon

    IFSQN...it's My Life

  • IFSQN Admin
  • 12,422 posts
  • 1311 thanks
669
Excellent

  • United Kingdom
    United Kingdom
  • Gender:Male
  • Location:Manchester
  • Interests:Married to Michelle, Father of three boys (Oliver, Jacob and Louis). I enjoy cycling, walking and travelling, watching sport, especially football and Manchester United. Oh and I love food and beer and wine.

Posted 10 November 2009 - 03:58 PM

Thanks for all of your research and information provided Jean.

Regards,
Simon


hand-pointing-down.gif
 
Get FREE bitesize education with IFSQN webinar recordings.
 
Download this handy excel for desktop access to over 140 Food Safety Friday's webinar recordings.
https://www.ifsqn.com/fsf/Free%20Food%20Safety%20Videos.xlsx

 
Check out IFSQN’s extensive library of FREE food safety videos
https://www.ifsqn.com/food_safety_videos.html

 

recommend-us-on-facebook.png


#10 Charles.C

Charles.C

    Grade - FIFSQN

  • IFSQN Moderator
  • 18,232 posts
  • 5111 thanks
1,110
Excellent

  • Earth
    Earth
  • Gender:Male
  • Interests:SF
    TV
    Movies

Posted 16 November 2009 - 12:25 PM

Dear All,

It’s maybe interesting to add some comparative statistics to Jeans’s excellent info. on Salmonella.

I guess one fairly meaningful parameter for toughness is (statistical) numbers of (a) incidents and (b) fatalities as per attachment 1 for the USA in the period 1998-2002. Salmonella spp. easily dominates (a) (for bacteria) but only ranked second in (b). I was personally rather amazed to see the clearcut “leader” in the latter (l.mono..) plus the huge number of norovirus incidents. This order is very likely to vary geographically IMO.

Attached File  statistics_1998___2002.png   19.79KB   24 downloads

In contrast, if you compare dose sensitivities ( numbers of organisms to “cause” an infection) as a ranking parameter as in attachments 2 and 3, E.coli O157 (enterohemorraghic), Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. seem to be competing for the lead (note that only one of these is an individual species and dose-response data is liable to vary from source to source).

Attached File  dose_data_who.png   35.41KB   25 downloads

Attached File  dose_data_USA__Canada__others.png   62.48KB   19 downloads

Rgds / Charles.C

Added – after I posted the above I found the links below of which the first two particularly discuss the limitations in reporting / adjustment of available data, the first offering a detailed re-calculation for the year 1997. Compared to the 1st attachment above, the numbers are greatly boosted due to multiplication by under-reporting factors, etc. The resulting major causes are similar but the relative rankings for Salmonella spp. / L.monocytogenes have now reversed and one new parasitic pathogen, Toxoplasma gondii, is now listed and ranked third ( which seems rather remarkable.)

The last 2 links are current, restate the global problem then discuss a WHO initiative to attack the existing lack of knowledge.

http://www.cdc.gov/n...ol5no5/mead.htm
http://origin-www.fs...2806_ETodd1.pdf
http://globalfoodlaw...-foodborne.html
http://www.who.int/f...g/en/index.html


Kind Regards,

 

Charles.C


#11 rita

rita

    Grade - AIFSQN

  • IFSQN Associate
  • 30 posts
  • 0 thanks
0
Neutral

  • Earth
    Earth
  • Gender:Female

Posted 17 November 2009 - 04:53 AM

Thanks Charles and Jean. All these informations are very comprehensive and worth to read.



#12 Jean

Jean

    Grade - SIFSQN

  • IFSQN Senior
  • 429 posts
  • 7 thanks
4
Neutral

  • India
    India
  • Gender:Female

Posted 17 November 2009 - 12:35 PM

"An

outbreak involving 87 cases of Salmonella

mbandaka was linked back to

growers who did not disinfect seeds

(Gill et al., 2003). The recommended

level of chlorine treatment, 20,000 ppm,

still may not be sufficient to eliminate

Salmonella

, especially if they are localized

inside the sprout tissue, as Gandhi

et al. (2001) observed. Therefore, compliance

on the part of the grower, while

worthwhile, does not guarantee a

Salmonella-

free product since chemical

sanitizers may not be wholly sufficient

to eliminate the presence of

Salmonella

in fruits and vegetables with natural

openings and crevices (Beuchat and

Ryu, 1997)."



IFT Scientific Status Summary

I found this from Riz's attachment from the thread on Pathogenic bacteria.



Best regards,

J

Only the curious will learn and only the resolute overcome the obstacles to learning. The quest quotient has always excited me more than the intelligence quotient. Eugene S Wilson

#13 GMO

GMO

    Grade - FIFSQN

  • IFSQN Fellow
  • 2,696 posts
  • 691 thanks
181
Excellent

  • United Kingdom
    United Kingdom

Posted 15 May 2011 - 08:10 AM

I hv seen very few (if any) premier leagues published but the range I hv seen quoted regarding human sensitivity is from approx 10 cells (bad bug book gives 15-20) to (from memory) several million.


That's what did it for Cadbury's. They assumed because no cases at that time had been detected at <10 cfug-1 that 10 was safe. It isn't. There is no safe level of Salmonellae in chocolate or other fatty foods. In fact, that previous sentence was a slide in some HACCP training I had while working for a rival chocolate company about 4 years before the Cadbury's outbreak...

#14 Charles.C

Charles.C

    Grade - FIFSQN

  • IFSQN Moderator
  • 18,232 posts
  • 5111 thanks
1,110
Excellent

  • Earth
    Earth
  • Gender:Male
  • Interests:SF
    TV
    Movies

Posted 16 May 2011 - 05:36 AM

Dear GMO,

Indeed.

I posted this interesting chunk a few years back (extracted from a book i think) -

In 1973-4, there was an 80 case outbreak of S.eastbourne in USA/Canada due to Xmas wrapped chocolate balls and originating from contaminated cocoa beans used in the manufacturing process. Measurement of salmonellae gave an average count of only 2.5 S.eastbourne/g of the chocolate samples obtained from the homes of infected persons suggesting that a dosage of less than 1000 organisms (the number in a 1lb bag) was sufficient to cause illness. This is one tenth the size of the dose estimated indirectly for S.typhimurium in another outbreak due to contaminated imitation ice-cream and one hundred -to ten thousand fold less than the numbers of S.meleagridis and S.anatum necessary to cause clinical syptoms in adult volunteers

.

(a follow-up post also suggested some of the illness might hv derived from eating 1lb of chocolate balls in one go ! :rolleyes: )

Rgds / Charles.C

Kind Regards,

 

Charles.C


#15 Tony-C

Tony-C

    Grade - FIFSQN

  • IFSQN Fellow
  • 3,378 posts
  • 1011 thanks
279
Excellent

  • United Kingdom
    United Kingdom
  • Gender:Male
  • Location:Koh Samui
  • Interests:My main interests are sports particularly football, pool, scuba diving, skiing and ten pin bowling.

Posted 16 May 2011 - 03:52 PM

There is no safe level of Salmonellae in chocolate or other fatty foods.


I think we've been here before:

So how do you release a chocolate product < 1 per 25 tonnes? Absent in what amount?

Regards,

Tony

#16 GMO

GMO

    Grade - FIFSQN

  • IFSQN Fellow
  • 2,696 posts
  • 691 thanks
181
Excellent

  • United Kingdom
    United Kingdom

Posted 16 May 2011 - 04:25 PM

I think we've been here before:

So how do you release a chocolate product < 1 per 25 tonnes? Absent in what amount?

Regards,

Tony


True, but you shouldn't release it (or fail to recall it) if it's detected at all. Cadbury's didn't do that.

#17 poppysnoss

poppysnoss

    Grade - MIFSQN

  • IFSQN Member
  • 146 posts
  • 10 thanks
1
Neutral

  • United Kingdom
    United Kingdom

Posted 01 June 2011 - 10:46 PM

Salmonella generally isn't enumerated at all. It's all detection by enrichment. Unlike Listeria mono, there is not a 'safety net' ie detected, but <100 cfu/g. Enrichment stages can make levels as low as 1 cfu in 25g grow up to detectable levels.

If it's detected at all, then it's bad news... :thumbdown:

#18 Charles.C

Charles.C

    Grade - FIFSQN

  • IFSQN Moderator
  • 18,232 posts
  • 5111 thanks
1,110
Excellent

  • Earth
    Earth
  • Gender:Male
  • Interests:SF
    TV
    Movies

Posted 02 June 2011 - 06:09 AM

Dear poppy,

Unlike Listeria mono, there is not a 'safety net' ie detected, but <100 cfu/g


May be true for L.mono in UK (but not 100% RTE products from memory?). However I believe several other countries are substantially less tolerant, eg USA, Australia.

Rgds / Charles.C

Kind Regards,

 

Charles.C


#19 Tony-C

Tony-C

    Grade - FIFSQN

  • IFSQN Fellow
  • 3,378 posts
  • 1011 thanks
279
Excellent

  • United Kingdom
    United Kingdom
  • Gender:Male
  • Location:Koh Samui
  • Interests:My main interests are sports particularly football, pool, scuba diving, skiing and ten pin bowling.

Posted 02 June 2011 - 04:34 PM

Salmonella generally isn't enumerated at all. It's all detection by enrichment. Unlike Listeria mono, there is not a 'safety net' ie detected, but <100 cfu/g. Enrichment stages can make levels as low as 1 cfu in 25g grow up to detectable levels.

If it's detected at all, then it's bad news... :thumbdown:


:headhurts:

Is it not < 1 per 25g as a standard then?

Regards,

Tony

#20 Tony-C

Tony-C

    Grade - FIFSQN

  • IFSQN Fellow
  • 3,378 posts
  • 1011 thanks
279
Excellent

  • United Kingdom
    United Kingdom
  • Gender:Male
  • Location:Koh Samui
  • Interests:My main interests are sports particularly football, pool, scuba diving, skiing and ten pin bowling.

Posted 02 June 2011 - 04:39 PM

Dear poppy,
May be true for L.mono in UK (but not 100% RTE products from memory?). However I believe several other countries are substantially less tolerant, eg USA, Australia.
Rgds / Charles.C


To quote GMO "There is no safe level" of L.monocytogenes in RTE food that can support the growth of such organisms (unless the shelf life is sufficiently short that growth would not be an issue).

What do you think?

Regards,

Tony

#21 Charles.C

Charles.C

    Grade - FIFSQN

  • IFSQN Moderator
  • 18,232 posts
  • 5111 thanks
1,110
Excellent

  • Earth
    Earth
  • Gender:Male
  • Interests:SF
    TV
    Movies

Posted 03 June 2011 - 07:41 AM

Dear Tony,

To quote GMO "There is no safe level" of L.monocytogenes in RTE food that can support the growth of such organisms (unless the shelf life is sufficiently short that growth would not be an issue).

What do you think?

Regards,

Tony


I think it depends on the evidence :smile: . I seem to recall that the cut-off derived from a quantitative RA which chose to set the allowed "incidents" / year at some arbitrary acceptance level.

I suppose we are all pawns on the galactic chessboard. :rolleyes:

Is it not < 1 per 25g as a standard then?


Well, it's certainly statistically different if you are importing into the USA as compared to EU (eg 15 vs 5 ?)(plus > lumped samples) As to the detection limits, also relates specificity etc of course, not too sure these days with all the probes around for the rich labs.

Rgds / Charles.C

Kind Regards,

 

Charles.C


#22 mesophile

mesophile

    Grade - MIFSQN

  • IFSQN Member
  • 134 posts
  • 137 thanks
9
Neutral

  • Wales
    Wales
  • Gender:Male
  • Interests:Twitter @DSi77

    Chartered Scientist (CSci)
    Member of IFST (MIFST)
    Avid guitar player, dog walker and fitness trainer.
    I love reading, and learning about new fields in food science and technology.

Posted 24 March 2013 - 03:06 PM

Its amazing what happens with a simple poll vote and a group of food scientists... A choice of four options has erupted in to a War & Peace novel :-)

I would say Salmonella typhi would typically be described as being the most virulent strain. This foodborne disease is a particularly nasty bugger, on par with the likes of the Verocytotoxigenic E.coli.

I think the next poll should be

Each of the following pathogens can be contracted by consumption of contaminated food, which one would you fear ingesting the most:

  • Yersinia pestis
  • Toxoplasma gondii
  • Salmonella typhi
  • E.coli O157:H7
  • Bundibugyo virus
  • Bacillus anthracis
  • Clostridium botulinum
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Hepatitus A
  • Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
  • Trichinella spiralis

So you have a range here of tapeworms, viruses, bacteria and protozoan organisms.

Thanks

Simon

#23 Simon

Simon

    IFSQN...it's My Life

  • IFSQN Admin
  • 12,422 posts
  • 1311 thanks
669
Excellent

  • United Kingdom
    United Kingdom
  • Gender:Male
  • Location:Manchester
  • Interests:Married to Michelle, Father of three boys (Oliver, Jacob and Louis). I enjoy cycling, walking and travelling, watching sport, especially football and Manchester United. Oh and I love food and beer and wine.

Posted 28 March 2013 - 06:02 PM

Its amazing what happens with a simple poll vote and a group of food scientists... A choice of four options has erupted in to a War & Peace novel :-)

I would say Salmonella typhi would typically be described as being the most virulent strain. This foodborne disease is a particularly nasty bugger, on par with the likes of the Verocytotoxigenic E.coli.

I think the next poll should be

Each of the following pathogens can be contracted by consumption of contaminated food, which one would you fear ingesting the most:

  • Yersinia pestis
  • Toxoplasma gondii
  • Salmonella typhi
  • E.coli O157:H7
  • Bundibugyo virus
  • Bacillus anthracis
  • Clostridium botulinum
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Hepatitus A
  • Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
  • Trichinella spiralis

So you have a range here of tapeworms, viruses, bacteria and protozoan organisms.


Thanks

Simon
Thanks for resurrecting this old thread Simon, You'd have to tell me which in your list I should fear most, I've never heard of some of them. :dunno:

Regards,
Simon

hand-pointing-down.gif
 
Get FREE bitesize education with IFSQN webinar recordings.
 
Download this handy excel for desktop access to over 140 Food Safety Friday's webinar recordings.
https://www.ifsqn.com/fsf/Free%20Food%20Safety%20Videos.xlsx

 
Check out IFSQN’s extensive library of FREE food safety videos
https://www.ifsqn.com/food_safety_videos.html

 

recommend-us-on-facebook.png


#24 Oldairyman

Oldairyman

    Grade - AIFSQN

  • Newbie
  • 38 posts
  • 20 thanks
4
Neutral

  • United States
    United States
  • Gender:Male
  • Location:Salem Oregon
  • Interests:Banjo, Scottish Pipes, Earth Science, Family, SQF Consultant

Posted 22 April 2013 - 07:26 PM

Wow, OK,.... the Mayo Clinic Periodical was over the Top . Good information.
Thanks Jeff :thumbup:



#25 Irishlass105

Irishlass105

    Grade - MIFSQN

  • IFSQN Member
  • 58 posts
  • 14 thanks
4
Neutral

  • United Kingdom
    United Kingdom

Posted 20 December 2017 - 03:18 PM

I work in an the egg industry. 

 

Salmonella can close the farms down, lock down our factory and prevent any type of production - for me salmonella is the devil!!!!






0 user(s) are reading this topic

0 members, 0 guests, 0 anonymous users